Wednesday, October 7, 2009

Keraton Surakarta Hadiningrat

Or full of Surakarta in Java language called Surakarta Sultanate is Kasunanan Surakarta palace. This royal palace was founded by susuhunan Pakubuwono II (Sunan PB II) in the year 1744 as a replacement for the Palace / Palace Kartasura ravaged by Chinatown Geger 1743. Last palace of Mataram Kingdom was established in the village of Sala (Solo), a small port on the west bank of River (river) Concrete / Sala. After the official palace of the kingdom of Mataram was completed, the village name was changed to Surakarta Sultanate. This palace is also a mute witness to the transfer of sovereignty by the Sunan of Mataram Kingdom II New Testament to the Company in the year 1749. After Giyanti Treaty in 1755, the palace was later used as the official palace for Kasunanan Surakarta.

* Architectural Glory 1
o 1.1 Complex Lor Square / North
o 1.2 Complex and complex Sumewa Sasana Sitihinggil Lor / North
o 1.3 Complex Kemandungan Lor / North
o Complex Sri Manganti 1.4
o 1.5 Complex Kedhaton
1.6 o-complex Complex Magangan, and Sri Manganti, Kemandungan, and Sitihinggil Kidul (South)
* 2 Cultural Heritage (Cultural Heritage)
o 2.1 Garebeg
o 2.2 Sekaten
o 2.3 Night One Suro
o 2.4 Heritage (heirloom) and sacred dances
* 3 Stakeholder Traditional Javanese Surakarta
* 4 The struggle for the throne
* 5 philosophy and mythology surrounding the Palace
* 6 References
* 7 External links

[edit] Architectural Glory

Keraton (Palace) of Surakarta is one of the exotic buildings in his time. One architect of this palace is the Prince Mangkubumi (later the title of Sultan Hamengkubuwono I) which is also the main architect of Yogyakarta Palace. It is not surprising that the basic pattern of spatial structure are two palaces (Yogyakarta and Surakarta) have many common similarities. Surakarta as can be witnessed today was not built simultaneously in 1744-45, but was built in stages to maintain the basic pattern of spatial structure remains the same as initially. Development and restoration of the last major by susuhunan Pakubuwono X (Sunan PB X) who reigns 1893-1939. Most of this palace of white and shades of blue with a mixture of styles arsitekrur Java-European.

In general, the division of the palace include: Complex Square Lor / North, Sasana Sumewa Complex, Complex Sitihinggil Lor / North, Lor Kamandungan Complex / North, Sri Manganti Complex, Complex Kedhaton, Kamagangan Complex, Complex Srimanganti South / South (?) And Kemandungan South / South, and South and Sitihinggil Complex Square South. This palace complex is surrounded by baluwarti, a high stockade with three to five feet and four feet thick without a bridge. These walls enclose an area with a rectangular shape. Wide area measuring approximately five hundred meters long and about seven hundred meters. Palace complex that was in the wall is from Kemandungan Lor / Kemandungan North to the South / South. Both Sitihinggil complex and not square is surrounded by defensive walls.
[edit] Complex Lor Square / North

This complex includes Gladhag, Pangurakan, North Square, and the Great Mosque of Surakarta. Gladhag now known as the crossroads of Gladhag Solo Jalan Slamet Riyadi, in ancient times used as a place to tie the captured animals from the forest. The square is the place to be held royal ceremonies involving the people. In addition alunmenjadi square-king meeting place and its people. On the edge of the square of the banyan tree planted. In the middle there are two square square banyan trees (Ficus benjamina; Family Moraceae) is given the fence. Both trees are called Waringin Sengkeran (harifah: banyan caged) Dewodaru named and Joyodaru. In the west north of the square stands Agung Mosque (Masjid Raya) of Surakarta. This highway is a mosque official royal mosque and established by susuhunan Pakubuwono III (Sunan PB III) in the year 1750 (Kasunanan Surakarta is the Islamic empire). The main building consists of the foyer and the main mosque.
[edit] Complex and complex Sumewa Sasana Sitihinggil Lor / North

Sumewa Sasana is the main building at the forefront of Surakarta. This place used his time as a place for facing the retainer (middle to top officials) in a royal ceremony. In this complex there are a number of them in the cannon named Kyai Kyai Pancawura or Broom Universe. The cannon was made in the reign of Sultan Agung. To the south there Sumewa Sasana Sitihinggil complex.

Sitihinggil is a complex built on higher ground than surrounding areas. This complex has two gates, one called the north by Kori Wijil and one south of the so-called Kori Renteng. In the north Sitihinggil stairs there is a stone that is used as a place Trunajaya beheadings called Pamecat Selo.

The main building at the complex Sewayana Sasana Sitihinggil is used by the authorities in the kingdom to attend the ceremony. In addition there Manguntur Tangkil Ward, where the throne susuhunan, and Ward Witono, where the greatness of the kingdom of Heritage mortuary during the ceremony. Ward the latter has a small building in the middle called Krobongan Bale Manguneng, where the mortuary palace heritage Setomi Kangjeng Nyai, a cannon that allegedly seized by soldiers from the VOC of Mataram when invaded Batavia. Outer side of the east-south-west of the complex is Sitihinggil public roads that can be taken by people who called Supit Urang (literally = claw shrimp).
[edit] Complex Kemandungan Lor / North
Kori Kamandungan seen from the direction of Lor Kemandungan pages with Bale and the stage in front Roto Buwana Sangga towering in the background.

Kori Brajanala (brojonolo) or clamp Kori is the main entrance gate from the north to the north Kemandungan page. This gate and the gate cepuri (in the palace complex which is surrounded by the walls of the palace called baluwarti) which connects the road with sapit urang in the palace yard. This gate was built by susuhunan Pakubuwono III Tinandu Semar style. On the right side and the left (west and east) from the inside Brajanala Kori Ward Wisomarto where there are guards guard. In addition to the east of this gate there is the bell tower. In the midst of this complex there is only a blank page. The building contained in this complex at the edge of the page. From this page also can be seen a magnificent tower called Sangga Buwana Stage (Stage Songgo Buwono) located in the next complex, Kompleks Sri Manganti.
[edit] Complex Sri Manganti

To enter this complex from the north must pass through a gate called Kori Kamandungan. In front of the right and left side of the gate and the blue shades of white there are two statues. On the right side and left side of the door have a large mirror and above there is a decoration consisting of weapons and flags are a symbol of royal ditengahnya. This decoration is called Bendero Gulo Klopo. In Sri page Manganti there are two main buildings west side Smarakatha Ward and Ward Marcukundha in the east.

Ward Smarakatha contemporaries used to facing the middle to upper staff with the rank of Regent Lebet up. This place is also a place of acceptance of promotion of senior officials. Now this place used to practice dancing and a performer. Marcukundha ward of the time used for soldiers facing the officers, for promotion junior employees and officials, as well as a place to drop the penalty for relatives king. Now this place to store Krobongan Madirenggo, a place for the ceremony of circumcision / kitan Susuhunan sons.

On the southwest side of the ward there is a Marcukundha octagonal tower called the Stage Sangga Buwana. Tower height of about three dozen meters are actually located in two pages at a time, pages and pages of Sri Manganti Kedhaton. However, the main door is located on page Kedhaton.
[edit] Complex Kedhaton

Kori Sri Manganti a door to enter the complex from the north Kedhaton. The gate was built by susuhunan Pakubuwono IV in 1792 is referred to as the Kori Agung. This building has a close connection with Buwana Sangga Pangung philosophically. Door that has a style Tinandu Semar is used to wait for the official guests of the kingdom. The right and left door has a mirror and a decoration above the door. Page Kedhaton covered with black sand from the south coast and covered by a variety of rare trees such as tree trunks 76 kecik Chrysophyllum (Manilkara kauki; Family Sapotaceae). Also this page is also decorated with statues of European style. This complex has a main building of which is Sasana Sewaka, nDalem Ageng Prabasuyasa, Sasana Handrawina, and Stage Sangga Buwana.

Sewaka Sasana originally a heritage building pendapa Kartasura palace. This place has experienced a fire in 1985. In this building also susuhunan enthroned in ceremonies such as royal grandeur and Garebeg king's birthday. In the west Sasana have Parasdya Sasana, a peringgitan. In the west there Parasdya Sasana Prabasuyasa Ageng nDalem. This place is the core and most important buildings from around the Sultanate of Surakarta. This is where buried treasures, heritage and also the throne of the king who became a symbol of the kingdom. At this location is also a king swore when he began to reign before the coronation Sitihinggil before audiences in the north.

The next building is Handrawina Sasana. This place used for official royal banquet. This building is now used As with the seminar and gala dinner of foreign visitors who come to the city of Solo. Another major building is Sangga Buwana stage. The tower was used as a place of meditation as well as to oversee susuhunan castle VOC / Dutch East Indies who was not far from the palace. The building has five floors that are also used to see the position of the moon to determine the beginning of a month. At the top of the roof top ornament is constructed that represents the year the oldest towers in the city of Surakarta.

Kedhaton complex west of the place closed to the general public and forbidden to be published so as not many know the truth. This region is the official residence of the king and royal family are still used today.
[edit] Complex-complex Magangan, and Sri Manganti, Kemandungan, and Sitihinggil Kidul (South)

Magangan complex formerly used by the civil service candidates. In this place there is a pendapa in the middle of the page. Two subsequent complex, Sri Manganti South / Kemandungan South and South / South is a page that is used during the funeral ceremony the king and queen. Final complex, including Sitihinggil south plaza south, has a small building. This complex is now used to maintain the heritage of the palace of an albino buffalo called Kyai Slamet.
[edit] Cultural Heritage (Cultural Heritage)
The guests at the event to the great Pisowanan four Tingalan Dalem Agung Jumenengan SISKS. Pako Boewono XIII

In addition to the grandeur of Surakarta building also has a cultural heritage is priceless. Diantarannya is customary ceremonies, sacred dances, music, and heritage (heirloom). Famous traditional ceremony is the ceremony Garebeg, Sekaten ceremony, and ceremony Night One Suro. Ceremony from the Empire era to the present continue to be implemented and an Indonesian cultural heritage that must be protected from foreign claims.
[edit] Garebeg

Garebeg ceremony was held three times in one calendar year / calendar Java, on the date Mulud twelve months (three months), the date one month Sawal (tenth month) and date of ten months (twelve months). On the day the king issued on charity as the embodiment of gratitude to God for the prosperity of the kingdom. This charity, which called Hajad Dalem, a pareden / mountain that consists of mountains and mountain kakung estri (male and female).

Kakung mound shaped like a cone with a severed upper end slightly rounded. Most of these mountains consist of a bean vegetable green coupled with chili, duck eggs, and some other dried food supplies. On the right side and left the circuit fitted with an Indonesian flag in a small size. Estri mound shaped like a basket full of flower bouquets. Largely composed of dry food made from rice or sticky rice shaped like a circle and pointed. This mound is also decorated with small flags next to Indonesia it.
[edit] Sekaten

Sekaten is a royal ceremony is held for seven days. It is said the origin of this ceremony since the kingdom of Demak. This ceremony is actually a celebration of the birthday of Prophet Muhammad. According to folklore Sekaten word derived from the credo of Islam, Syahadatain. Sekaten begins with two sets of exit Sekati gamelan, Kyai Kyai Guntursari Gunturmadu and, from the palace to be placed in front of the Great Mosque of Surakarta. For six days, starting the sixth day until the eleventh month in the calendar Mulud Javanese gamelan both devices is played / sounded (Jw: beating) marks the celebration sekaten. Finally on the seventh day of the ceremony closed with the exit Mount Mulud. Currently in addition to such traditional ceremony also held a night market that began a month before the solemnization of the real sekaten.
[edit] Night One Suro

Night one suro in Javanese society is a celebration of the new year according to the Javanese calendar. The night began to fall one suro sunset on the last day of last month Javanese calendar (30/29 Big) until the rising sun on the first day of the first month of next year (1 Suro). In Surakarta was commemorated with a ceremony Mubeng Beteng Parade (parade Around the Castle Palace). This ceremony begins Kemandungan complex Brojonolo north through the gate and then around the entire area of the palace in the direction opposite the direction of rotation clockwise and ends at the north Kemandungan pages. In this procession heritage palace became the main part and is positioned in the front row and then followed by the lords court, the employees and ultimately the community. A unique is placed in the vanguard of a flock of heirloom albino buffalo named Kyai Slamet is always the center of public attention.
[edit] Heritage (heirloom) and sacred dances
Sacred Dance Ketawang Bedhoyo

Surakarta has a number of collections including the royal heritage of the king's throne, gamelan music devices and the collection of weapons. Among the collection is the gamelan Kyai Kyai Gunturmadu Guntursari and that only played / sounded at the time Sekaten ceremony. In addition to the heritage of Surakarta palace also has traditional dancing performed only at certain ceremonies. For example, sacred dance is performed Ketawang Bedaya at King's crowning moment.
[edit] Stakeholder Traditional Javanese Surakarta

Surakarta palace was originally the Palace Institute (Imperial House) in charge of the king and the royal family as well as its administrative capital of Surakarta kesunanan. After kesunanan declared Surakarta Indonesia removed by the government in 1946, the role of Surakarta palace is no more a particular Java Indigenous Stakeholder lines / Surakarta style. Similarly susuhunan no longer play a role in affairs of state as a king dala political sense but rather as Throne of Lord Stakeholder Traditional, informal leaders of culture. Function palace was turned into protectors and guardians of cultural identity, especially Java, Surakarta style. Despite the limited functions in the informal sector but the Surakarta palace still has its own charm in the Java community, especially in the former regions of Surakarta kesunanan. In addition Surakarta court also gave honorary knighted (honoriscausa) to those who have the attention to culture, especially Javanese Surakarta in addition to eligible because of blood relationship or because of their position as an employee (servant) palace.
[edit] Struggle for the throne

After the death of Sri Pakubuwono XII on June 11, 2004, occurred throne between Prince Hangabehi (first son) Prince Tejowulan view, each of whom declared themselves as Pakubuwana XIII. hangabehi feel has the legitimacy to the throne because he was the son of the first man, while arguing that Tejowulan Pakubuwono XII had declared in writing that will replace Tejowulanlah. This conflict is not over and is at the status quo.
[edit] Philosophy and the mythology surrounding the Palace

Each name and ceremonial buildings, building form and ceremonial objects, the location of buildings, as well as a ceremonial procession in the palace has significance or meaning of each philosophy. But it was a pity that meanings are not many who know and less attention. Some of them will be shown in the following paragraphs.

Large mirror on the right and left Kori Kemadungan mengadung meaning introspection. The name itself comes from Kemandungan Mandung words that have meaning to stop. The name comes from Marcukundha ward Marcu word which means fire and that means kundho container / place, so Marcukundho symbolizes a prayer / hope. The stage tower is a symbol Sangga Buwana Linga and Kori Sri Manganti the west side is a symbol of Yoni. Linga-Yoni symbol in Javanese society is believed to be a symbol of fertility. In Garebeg ceremony known as a charity in the form of mountain king. Mound represents charity mountainous.

In addition Surakarta palace also has a mystical and myth and legend that developed in the community. Like the meaning of the lost philosophy, mysticism and myth and legend of the program is increasingly disappearing. As one example is the belief some people in the mountains fighting Garebeg. They believe parts of the mountains can bring good luck in the form of either financial or otherwise.

In addition there are legends about the age of Surakarta Nagari. When the palace was completed came a prediction that the kingdom of Surakarta will only prevail over two hundred years. After two hundred years the king's power will only be as wide as the flowering of an umbrella (Jw: cooking curry megare umbrella). Legend of the program seemed to get ratification by the fact happened. If the placement is calculated from the palace officially on 1745 / 6 then two hundred years later in 1945 Indonesia's independence Kesusnanan power actually declined. A year later in 1946 Surakarta kesunanan really susuhunan removed and power is completely discharged and only the close relatives only.

No comments:

Post a Comment